Sharp play the key that is a half-step higher
Flat play the key that is a half-step lower
Tonic Step 1 of the scale
Dominant Step 5 of the scale
Accent mark play this note louder
Eighth note one half beat
Natural Cancels a sharp or flat.
Transposition Playing a piece in a different position. Note names change, but the intervals stay the same.
Crescendo gradually louder
Diminuendo gradually softer